immunofluorescence reagents
  • Human Reproduction and Hormones Including FSH, LH and More
    Human Reproduction and Hormones Including FSH, LH and More August 23, 2022
    The human male and female reproductive cycles are controlled by the interaction of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary with hormones from reproductive tissues and organs. In both sexes, the hypothalamus monitors and causes the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. When the reproductive hormone is required, the hypothalamus sends a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to the anterior pituitary. This causes the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary into the blood. Note that the body must reach puberty in order for the adrenals to release the hormones that must be present for GnRH to be produced. Although FSH and LH are named after their functions in female reproduction, they are produced in both sexes and play important roles in controlling reproduction. Male Hormones At the onset of puberty, the hypothalamus causes the release of FSH and LH into the male system for the first time. FSH enters the testes and stimulates the Sertoli cells to begin facilitating spermatogenesis. LH also enters the testes and stimulates the interstitial cells of Leydig to make and release testosterone into the testes and the blood. Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis. These secondary sex characteristics include a deepening of the voice, the growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and the beginnings of the sex drive. Figure 1 Hormones control sperm production. Female Hormones The control of reproduction in females is more complex. As with the male, the anterior pituitary hormones cause the release of the hormones FSH and LH. In addition, estrogens and progesterone are released from the developing follicles. Estrogen is the reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption. These include breast development. Progesterone assists in endometrial re-growth and inhibition of FSH and LH release. In females, FSH stimulates development of egg cells, called ova, which develop in structures called follicles. Follicle cells produce the hormone inhibin, which inhibits FSH production. LH also plays a role in the development of ova, induction of ovulation, and stimulation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries. Estradiol and progesterone are steroid hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy. Estradiol produces secondary sex characteristics in females, while both estradiol and progesterone regulate the menstrual cycle. The Ovarian Cycle and the Menstrual Cycle The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22–32 day cycle, with an average...
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  • Why doctors are recommending CRP tests even for Covid patients?
    Why doctors are recommending CRP tests even for Covid patients? February 18, 2022
    WHAT IS CRP C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein made by the liver. CRP levels in the blood increase when there is a condition causing inflammation somewhere in the body. A CRP test measures the amount of CRP in the blood to detect inflammation due to acute conditions or to monitor the severity of disease in chronic conditions. (LABTESTONLINE, 2021) WHY CRP TEST After an injury, the start of an infection, or other cause of inflammation, CRP is released into the blood within several hours, making it a non-specific indicator of inflammation and one of the most sensitive acute phase reactants. You may need this test if you have symptoms of a serious bacterial infection. The level of CRP can surge as much as a thousand-fold in response to bacterial infection (LABTESTONLINE, 2021) Symptoms include: ²  Fever ²  Chills ²  Rapid breathing ²  Rapid heart rate ²  Nausea and vomiting A CRP test is simple and safe, and you don’t need any special preparations. A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. The process usually takes less than 5 minutes and all you feel is a little sting. (MedlinePlus, 2020) HOW OFTEN SHOULD CRP BE CHECKED Checking the CRP level for the entire adult population is not recommended. Some experts recommend checking the serum CRP level routinely along with the cholesterol level; however, although this is not widely accepted. (MedicineNet, 2021) Ideally, for cardiac risk testing, it is advisable to use the average between two separate CRP levels drawn two weeks part. Because measuring CRP levels at any point in time may be influenced by any infection or inflammation in the body, onetime measurement is generally not regarded as an adequate predictor of cardiovascular risk. (MedicineNet, 2021) CRP MEETS COVID-19 The outbreak of COVID-19 is an emerging global health threat. Clinical studies demonstrated that elevated level of C‐reactive protein may be an early marker to predict risk for severity of COVID‐19. It has been found CRP level changes significantly in patients with severe COVID-19 conditions. (MedlinePlus, 2020) With reference to the outcome made by some recent studies, serum concentration of CRP in patients with COVID‐19 are presented in Table 1. (MedlinePlus, 2020) WHY CRP TEST SHOULD BE RECOMMENDED TO THE COVID PATIENTS? Doctors are conducting it mandatorily for the patients with critical conditions who are in hospital care, because it is one of the indicators showing the body’s reaction to the ongoing treatment. In Covid treatment, if the CRP is the normal level then the patient’s body is reacting to the treatment positively and if it is higher than the required, then doctors would check the infection level in the body through other tests like CT scan. CRP test is not costly like CT scan and the CRP level in the patients on the basis of which doctors can decide the next course of action. Doctors recommend it for at least twice on an interval of 4-...
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  • Can Dietary factors protect against liver cancer development?
    Can Dietary factors protect against liver cancer development? January 27, 2022
    Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common (>80%) histological type of liver cancer. There are large variations in geographical distribution of liver cancer worldwide. The disease burden is the highest in areas with endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, such as in Asian countries, specifically in the East and South-East Asia, while North and South America have a relatively low incidence. About 72% of all liver cancer occurs in Asia, with China accounting for 47% of the global burden. Established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV), excessive alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure. Carbohydrates Over the past decades, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption has increased dramatically worldwide. Although still inconclusive, this rising trend in sugar consumption, practically simple sugar (mainly fructose consumption), has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and T2D, and NAFLD. As mentioned above, insulin resistance, obesity and NAFLD may lead to the establishment of HCC. Thus, SSB consumption, mainly fructose, could be thereby linked to HCC development. Dietary fats/fatty acids To date, the association between dietary fat intake and risk of HCC has not been well studied, and the existing epidemiologic evidence is limited and inconclusive. Dietary proteins/amino acids The three BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine and valine, are among the nine essential amino acids for humans. They have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro.   Dietary trace elements and vitamins In the 2 cohorts of Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study with 132,765 Chinese adults and over 500 liver cancer cases, it suggested that dietary manganese intake was inversely associated with liver cancer risk Dairy products Previous studies suggested that high dairy product intake may increase the levels of plasma IGF-1. The increased concentration of IGF-1, an important factor in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis, might contribute to the development of several cancers including HCC in experimental studies. Fruit, vegetable Consistently, total fiber, vegetable fiber, especially cereal fiber, were possibly associated with lower HCC risk, while fiber from fruit did not seem to be associated with HCC risk. Meats In the Japanese Ministry of Education (JACC) cohort, showing no significant association between beef or pork intake and HCC mortality without adjustment for any risk factors. Intake of red meat particularly processed red meat may increase, while white meat possibly fish may decrease the risk of HCC Coffee and alcohol The evidenc...
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  • Can vitamin D ward off respiratory tract infections?
    Can vitamin D ward off respiratory tract infections? January 11, 2022
    Vitamin D For Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections (COVID-19) What is Vitamin D? Vitamin D is a fat-soluble-vitamin, unlike most other vitamins which are generally obtained through dietary sources, in that a major source derives from UV light-induced conversion of its precursor under the skin which means Vitamin D can be produced by the body itself through exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D is not naturally present in most foods. Dietary sources include fortified foods and supplements. Fatty fish and fish liver oils are among the few quality sources of vitamin D, and smaller amounts are found in beef liver and some mushrooms. (WHO, n.d.) (Lukaszuk and Luebbers, 2017) Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide. (WHO, n.d.) Why is Vitamin D Important? Vitamin D deficiency may affect the immune system as vitamin D plays an immunomodulation role, enhancing innate immunity by up-regulating the expression and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, which boosts mucosal defences. Furthermore, recent meta-analyses have reported a protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory tract infections. (WHO, n.d.) Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with rickets, a disease in which the bone tissue doesn't properly mineralize, leading to soft bones and skeletal deformities. But increasingly, research is revealing the importance of vitamin D in protecting against a host of health problems including: l  Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease l  Cognitive impairment in older adults l  Severe asthma in children l  Cancer (Davis, 2009) Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Respiratory tract infections are conditions that affect the air passages. These include acute infections that affect the lower respiratory tract and lungs, such as pneumonia and influenza, which are among the leading causes of death in children worldwide. (WHO, n.d.) In 2015, 16% of all deaths in children under five years of age were attributed to pneumonia. Pneumonia is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can also be caused by a virus, such as coronavirus (COVID-19). These conditions may also have an impact on quality of life. Therefore, it is important to find interventions that could prevent respiratory conditions. (WHO, n.d.) A constant effort has been put into addressing those diseases caused by Vitamin D deficiency. And so far to our knowledge, observational studies report consistent independent associations between low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infection. In a recent-year research conducted by a whole lot of health professionals to find out the role of Vitamin D in preventing respiratory infections, they came to a conclusion: “Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants. And protective effects were seen in those receiv...
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  • Cardiac Blood Test - A Quick Walkthrough
    Cardiac Blood Test - A Quick Walkthrough October 21, 2021
    Your blood offers many clues about your heart health. Aside from cholesterol level in your blood which can be a sign of whether you have a heart attack, other substances in your blood can also tell you about your heart health. It's important to remember that one blood test alone doesn't determine your risk of heart disease. It often takes several different blood tests for doctors to diagnose and manage heart disease. In this article, we will focus on some of them and take a quick look at why you may need this test. Cardiac biomarkers are substances that are released into the blood when the heart is damaged or stressed. Measurements of these biomarkers are used to help diagnose acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cardiac ischemia, conditions associated with insufficient blood flow to the heart. Tests for cardiac biomarkers can also be used to help determine a person’s risk of having these conditions or to help monitor and manage someone with suspected ACS and cardiac ischemia. Troponin Troponin is a protein released into your bloodstream when your heart muscle is being damaged. This protein is by far the most commonly used biomarker. It has the highest known sensitivity. An increased level of troponin protein in your blood has been linked with the amount of heart damage following a heart attack and a higher risk of heart disease in people who have no symptoms so it is often done if you have chest pain. (UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, 2021) Myoglobin Myoglobin is a small protein that stores oxygen. It is measured occasionally. Myoglobin is sometimes measured in addition to troponin to help diagnose a heart attack. It is also not very specific for finding a heart attack. (UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, 2021) B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a protein that your heart and blood vessels make. BNP helps your body eliminate fluids, relaxes blood vessels and moves sodium into your urine. For people who have heart failure, establishing a baseline BNP can be helpful and future tests can be used to help measure how well treatment works. BNP has a variation called N-terminal BNP which is also useful for diagnosing heart failure and for assessing the risk of a heart attack and other problems in those with existing heart disease. (Mayo Clinic, 2021) CK-MB CK-MB is a subtype of CK. It is more sensitive for finding heart damage from a heart attack. CK-MB rises 4 to 6 hours after a heart attack. But it is generally back to normal in a day or two. Because of this, it's not helpful when a healthcare provider is trying to figure out if your recent chest pain was a heart attack. (UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, 2021) D-Dimer D-Dimer is one of the protein fragments produced when a blood clot gets dissolved in the body. It is normally undetectable or detectable at a very low level unless the body is forming and breaking down blood clots. Then, its level in the blood can significantly rise. The strength of the D...
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  • Biotime HPLC analyzer// Gold standard for HbA1c measurement
  • Immunoassay Analyzers And Assays
    Immunoassay Analyzers And Assays August 11, 2021
    INTRODUCTION Immunoassay analysers are applied to a situation where one wants to detect or isolate a molecule within a mixture, usually using an antibody as a reagent. (Beckmancoulter, 2021) These devices perform a variety of tests including those targeting cancer, allergies, therapeutic drug monitoring and more. And they typically include an autosampler, a reagent dispenser, a washer, and a detection system. (Who.int, 2021) Modern immunoassay analysers often come with advanced, user-friendly features such as touchscreen interface, easy-to-use software and ready-to-use reagents. With advanced analysers, laboratories can benefit from simple and trouble-free operation, workflow flexibility, fast turnaround times, and broad measuring ranges. (Block Scientific Inc, 2021) TYPES AND VARIATIONS Five types of immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluoroimmunoassay (FIA), chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and counting immunoassay (CIA), are generally used. Depending on configuration and levels of sophistication, as well as available testing options, different immunoassay analysers could vary greatly. (Martínez, 2021) Radioimmunoassay The radioimmunoassay is perhaps the oldest types of immunoassays. Here, a radioisotope is attached to an antigen of interest and bound with its complementary antibody. Then a sample with the antigen to be measured is added. It competes with the radioactive antigen, kicks it out of the binding spot and replaces it. After washing away unbound antigens the radioactivity of the sample is measured. The amount of radioactive signal is inversely related to the amount of target antigen. The health hazards of using radioactive substances caused a movement toward safer methods. (Martínez, 2021) Counting immunoassay In a counting immunoassay, polystyrene beads are coated with many antibodies complementary to the target antigen. During incubation the beads bind to multiple antigens and group together into a large mass. Some beads remain unbound. The entire solution is passed through a cell counter and only the unbound beads are counted. The number of unbound beads is inversely proportional to the amount of antigen. (Martínez, 2021) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay The Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay, also known as ELISA, determines various entities such as the presence of antibodies to an infectious disease and also detects and measures antibodies in human samples as a reaction to specific antigens. ELISA-tests are commonly used to test the concentration of Vitamin D, insulin, COVID-19 or hepatitis antigens in samples. (Future Diagnostics, 2021) Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Immunoassays Besides the use of immunoassays based on colour intensity to detect antibodies in specimens, detection can also be done by fluorescent tracers and light-generating molecules. These are called Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) and Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA). The basis of these immunoassays is a variant of ELISA. T...
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  • IL6-A ROBUST PREDICTOR OF SEVERE COVID19 ILLNESS
    IL6-A ROBUST PREDICTOR OF SEVERE COVID19 ILLNESS July 29, 2021
    WHAT IS IL-6 IL-6 is an immune protein promptly and transiently produced in response to tissue damage and infections. On the other hand, IL-6 is also a pyrogen and is responsible for fever in autoimmune, infectious, or non-infectious diseases. IL-6 is produced in the body, wherever there is inflammation, either acute or chronic. This includes situations such as trauma, burns, cancers, and infection. (Thomas, 2021)   RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IL-6 AND COVID-19 During the pandemic, scientists have explored the role of IL-6 as a predictor for patients with severe coronavirus disease.   Based on the finding that infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus induces a dose-dependent production of IL-6 from bronchial epithelial cells, a study involving nearly 11,000 patients discovered that treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients with drugs that block the effects of interleukin-6 reduces the risk of death and the need for mechanical ventilation. (Henderson, 2021)   According to the study, in hospitalized patients, administering the interleukin-6 antagonists (such as tocilizumab and sarilumab) in addition to corticosteroids reduces the risk of death by 17%, compared to the use of corticosteroids alone. In patients not on mechanical ventilation, the risk of mechanical ventilation or death is reduced by 21%, compared to the use of corticosteroids alone. (Henderson, 2021)   Some also conducted data analysis of COVID-19 cases at long-term care facilities in Slovakia Patients with hypoxemia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase at initial screening among which IL-6 was identified as the most robust predictor of hypoxemia. (Sabaka et al., 2021)   Given the current situation of global vaccine inequity, people in the lowest income countries will be the ones most at risk of severe and critical COVID-19. Therefore, further work is necessary to clarify the exact role of IL-6 during coronavirus infections and the potential role of this cytokine to be used as a biomarker of viral virulence. Additional work exploring the potential therapeutic use of blocking IL-6 or different products affected by its activity might provide insight into controlling persistent COVID-19 infections. (Velazquez-Salinas et al., 2019)   BIOTIME IL-6 Biotime IL-6 is an in vitro diagnostic test for the quantitative determination of IL 6 in human serum or plasma. As researchers have pointed out a portion of severely ill COVID-19 patients experience rapid deterioration and need for mechanical ventilation due to development of ARDS. Being an unconventional way to address the issue, Biotime IL-6 can also be used to assist in identifying severe inflammatory response in patients with confirmed COVID 19 illness who need mechanical ventilation in conjunction with clinical findings.     References Thomas, L. (2...
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