immunofluorescence reagents
  • Looking back in Diagnosing diseases, Current POCT. Looking into the future
    Looking back in Diagnosing diseases, Current POCT. Looking into the future April 06, 2022
    Looking back in Diagnosing diseases, Current POCT. Looking into the future. Today epidemics of infectious diseases occur more often and spread both faster and further due to globalization and changes in our lifestyles. One way to meet these biological threats is so-called “Frugal Innovations”, which focus on the development of affordable, rapid, and easy-to-use diagnostics with widespread use. In this context, point-of-care-tests (POCTs), performed at the patient’s bedside, reduce extensive waiting times and unnecessary treatments, and enable effective containment measures. Progress in POCT technology and insights on how to use them allows the handling of more patients most effectively in a shorter time frame and consequently improves clinical outcomes at a lower cost. Looking back on the Conventional diagnostic testing Traditional clinical testing is known as the most commonly applied method in clinics and hospitals all across the world. It is believed that there is no laboratory that has not been encountered in one form or another. Traditional testing provided highly reproducible, quantitative data that makes it an advantageous biotechnological tool in scientific research and clinical diagnosis. Nonetheless, Old testing procedures suffered from certain drawbacks. Different attempts were made for the development of the modified platforms to improve this technique and overcome its shortages. POCT and current situation Time-consuming procedures such as transportation, processing, and aliquoting processes are reduced or even eliminated by bringing every step (sample acquisition, preparation, analysis) directly to the patient’s bedside, thereby creating a more streamlined and faster workflow. Looking into the future. POCT has the potential to reduce global health care costs. The highest demand at present is for developing POCT platforms for resource-limited settings. One of the major challenges is to translate research in the POCT area into affordable products that are available at the periphery of the health care system. Intensive efforts would be required to convert the prototypes into highly reproducible POCT platforms with better performance and cost-effectiveness after scaling up. BIOTIME as POCT manufacturer As a high-tech enterprise specializing in developing, manufacturing, and trading POCT in vitro diagnostic reagents. We build revolutionary products in diagnostics, medical devices that serve you, your family, and your community to lead healthy lives. Our devices and reagents are developed with the aim, which is “Fast is fine, but Accuracy is everything”. Numerous master's and doctoral candidates who have an international background are part of our outstanding team of scientists. Our every product has been built with a Trend-tracking function which provides nurses, physicians, respiratory, and therapists, to be able to trace their patients’ history results and treat them efficiently. We provide constant training programs for our devices, re...
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  • Introducing Cardiac Biomarkers in Predicting Inpatient Mortality with COVID-19: 5 in1 (CTnI/ CK-MB/ Myo/ NT-ProBNP/ D-Dimer)
    Introducing Cardiac Biomarkers in Predicting Inpatient Mortality with COVID-19: 5 in1 (CTnI/ CK-MB/ Myo/ NT-ProBNP/ D-Dimer) March 31, 2022
    The prognostic power of circulating cardiac biomarkers, their utility, and pattern of release in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have not been clearly defined.   The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to over 474 million confirmed cases with 6,098,739 deaths worldwide by March 23rd, 2022.   Patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions are particularly at risk and have poor prognoses. Clinical characteristics including heart rate, breath rate, fever, cough, and dyspnea at the time of admission were analyzed. Laboratory measurements including neutrophil count, CRP (C-reactive protein), cardiac biomarkers (hs-cTnI, CK-MB, NT-proBNP [N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide] or BNP [brain natriuretic peptide], MYO [myoglobin], and CK), and inflammatory cytokine IL (interleukin)-6 at admission and during hospitalization were extracted and analyzed. Cardiac-specific biomarkers, such as hs-cTnI, CK-MB, and (NT-pro)BNP. Compared with patients without available myocardial biomarkers, patients with measured cardiac injury markers had higher incidences of 28-day all-cause death and the occurrences of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, heart failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), sepsis, or multiorgan failure, and acute renal failure.   Prognostic Performance of Cardiac Injury Biomarkers in Predicting 28-Day All-Cause Mortality of COVID-19. To compare the relative accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of each biomarker based on laboratory defined ULN, the prognostic performance of each marker was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to demonstrate the ability of each cardiac biomarker in discrimination of high risk of COVID-19 mortality, which was quantitated as AUC. Trajectory Patterns of Cardiac Biomarkers and Inflammatory Factor Elevation in Patients With COVID-19. To further demonstrate the mechanistic cause of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients, Which determined the temporal relationship of cardiac biomarker elevation with that of the inflammatory markers over time, it has been analyzed the cumulative proportions of patients with increased cardiac biomarkers in association with inflammatory factors of CRP, neutrophil count, and IL-6 elevation during the entire study period. This was based on the laboratory-defined ULN and analyzed from the time of symptom onset (day 0) to the end of follow-up.   In patients showing heart injury during the entire hospitalization, neutrophil percentage and CRP were rapidly and simultaneously increased after disease onset, immediately followed by the increases of CK-MB, MYO, and hs-cTnI. In contrast, the significant elevation of IL-6 occurred only after the increases of these myocardial markers and was highly elevated mainly in patients with evidence of cardiac injury. The increased inflammatory ma...
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  • A global market analysis of point-of-care Diabetes testing
    A global market analysis of point-of-care Diabetes testing March 24, 2022
    Diabetes statistics around the world in 2021 Diabetes diagnostics systems are used to measure blood glucose levels or blood sugar levels, which indicates whether or not a person is suffering from diabetes. According to International Diabetes Federation’s findings in 2021. 537 million adults (20-79 years) are living with diabetes 1 in 10. This number is predicted to rise to 643 million by 2030 and 783 million by 2045. Over 3 in 4 adults with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries. Diabetes is responsible for 6.7 million deaths in 2021, 1 every 5 seconds. Diabetes caused at least USD 966 billion in health expenditure 316% increase over the last 15 years. 541 million adults have Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), which places them at high risk of type 2 diabetes. IDF analyzed by regional investigation, that adults are living with diabetes also future predictions in 2030 and 2045.Table 1. By Regions Average number of people at present Average number of people in mln Number of people with diabetes in mIn by 2030 Number of people with diabetes in mln by 2045 Afrika 1 in 22 24 55 Europe 1 in 11 61 67 69 Middle East and North Africa 1 in 6 73 95 136 North America and Caribbean 1 in 7 51 57 63 South and Central America 1 in 11 32 40 49 South-East Asia 1 in 11 90 113 151 Western Pacific 1 in 8 206 206 260 Table 1.The number of adults living with diabetes and upcoming numbers. HbA1c testing review Demand for diabetes diagnostics devices and systems is being driven by the need for easier, economic, and efficient management of the global diabetes epidemic, improving ease-of-use and accuracy of devices, and development of non-invasive techniques to simplify regular glucose testing. The spread of diabetes at epidemic proportions is driving the requirement for pre-diabetics testing and post-prandial glucose-level monitoring. With increasing levels of patient education on possible ways of preventing and delaying the onset of Type II diabetes, more and more pre-diabetics are expected to start testing blood glucose. Technology advancements in diabetes diagnostics that are poised to benefit market prospects in the near term include mHealth Solutions for diabetes diagnosis; wearable glucose testing devices; implantable continuous glucose monitor; and cloud-enabled CGM devices, among others. COVID-19 and diabetes There are many reasons why people with diabetes may be more susceptible to developing adverse events following COVID-19 infection. Diabetes is extremely common in older populations, including those living in long-term care facilities, a setting that was particularly affected byearly outbreaks of COVID-19 severity and death. As in thegeneral population, age appears to be an important riskfactor for COVID-19 severity and mortality in hospitalized people with diabetes. Research studies suggest that diabetes is a risk factor for severe COVID-19-related disease, resulting in a greater risk of hospitalization and death. Populations with diabetes should be...
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  • The development of the boronate affinity chromatography and Biotime’s success
    The development of the boronate affinity chromatography and Biotime’s success March 14, 2022
    Boronate affinity chromatography (BAC) is a unique means for selective separation and enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Cis-diol-containing biomolecules are an important class of compounds, including glycoproteins, glycopeptides, ribonucleosides, ribonucleotides, saccharides, and catecholamines. These biomolecules play essential roles in many life-related processes. Because cis-diol-containing biomolecules are important target molecules in current research frontiers such as proteomics, metabolomics, and glycomics, BAC and boronate affinity materials have gained rapid development and found increasing applications in recent decades. BAC is a unique mode of affinity chromatography, in which a boronic acid is used as the ligand for the selective isolation and enrichment of cis diol-containing compounds. The retention mechanism mainly relies on the pH-controlled reversible covalent interactions between cis-diol groups and the boronic acid ligand. As compared to other affinity chromatographic techniques, BAC exhibits several significant features, including broad-spectrum selectivity, reversible covalent binding, pH-controlled binding/release, and fast association/desorption kinetics. Owing to these merits, BAC is of great value in a variety of fields such as affinity separation, proteomic analysis, and metabolomics analysis.   HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The history of BAC can be simply divided into three different periods: early development period before 1970, approach-forming period 1970–2005, and new development period since 2006.   PRINCIPLE AND BINDING PH BAC principle relies on the reversible covalent reaction between cis-diol-containing compounds and boronic acid ligands. Figure 1 shows a general formula for the interaction between boronic acid and a cis diol-containing compound. When the surrounding pH is greater than the pKa value of the boronic acid, hydrolysis of the boronic acid occurs, resulting in a hybridization status change from trigonal coplanar shape to tetragonal boronate anion (from sp2 to sp3). The obtained tetragonal boronate anion can react with cis-diols and form five or six-membered cyclic esters. When the pH of the surrounding solution is switched to acidic, the boronic acid-cis-diol complex dissociates, because the binding strength between boronic acids in trigonal form and cis diol-containing compounds is very weak. Owing to the pH-controlled reversible covalent reaction, elution of captured analytes in BAC is very simple, just needing an acidic solution as the eluting buffer. Alternatively, the release of the captured analytes by the boronic acid ligands can be realized through adding excessive amounts of competing for cis-diol-containing molecules such as sorbitol into the loading buffer.   BORONATE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY Figure 1 Schematic diagram showing the interaction between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing compounds. INTERACTION MECHANISM AND SELECTIVITY MANIPULATION Selectivity is an esse...
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  • How Productive is the D-Dimer for Chest Pains and Covid-19?
    How Productive is the D-Dimer for Chest Pains and Covid-19? March 02, 2022
    How Productive is the D-Dimer for Chest Pains and Covid-19?   D-dimers are cleavage products of fibrin that occur during plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis of blood clots. In the emergency department, D-dimer tests are broadly used as an excellent non-invasive triage biomarker in patients, which measurement represents a valuable and cost-effective tool in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain including the main life-threatening entities: acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and acute aortic syndrome. Whereas the diagnostic and prognostic values of D-dimer testing in acute coronary syndrome is of less priority, increases of D-dimers are frequently found in venous thromboembolism and acute aortic syndromes, especially acute aortic dissection.   Laboratory evaluation   D-dimer levels can be assessed by microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enzyme-linked immunofluorescence assay, whole-blood cell agglutination, or latex agglutination tests. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of D-dimer tests depend on the kind of used test, the cutoff value, and the kind of assumed disease. Cutoff levels are influenced by the kind of test used and may differ between different laboratories. D-dimer levels are associated with the amount of clotted blood. Highest levels are reached in massive venous thromboembolism and after cardiovascular arrest.   Influence of D-Dimers on ACS   Acute myocardial ischemia is caused by thrombotic occlusion of coronary arteries, implicating that D-dimer levels should be raised in focal coronary thrombosis. Whereas troponin is a highly sensitive and specific parameter for myocardial injury, elevation is measurable not until 3-4 hours after onset of symptoms. By contrast, D-dimer propose earlier rise than common markers of cardiac injury. It has been demonstrated that increased D-dimer levels may serve as an independent diagnostic marker for myocardial infarction with an increase in diagnostic sensitivity of the electrocardiogram and clinical history plus D-dimer.   Value of D-Dimer Measurement in PE   D-dimers have been shown to be highly sensitive in venous thromboembolism. Owing to the fact that deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism often occur at the same time and up to 50% of patients with deep vein thrombosis have clinically inapparent pulmonary embolism, D-dimer levels can be used similarly in patients with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Therefore, the D-dimer test as a fast and cost-effective method is recommended in suspected pulmonary embolism.   D-Dimers in Aortic Dissection and other Aortic Syndromes   The term acute aortic syndrome includes different conditions ranging from an intramural hematoma to typical aortic dissection, together characterized by a disruption of the structural integrity of the aortic wall with subsequent initiation of coagulation. Apart from clinical presentation, imaging methods, and other biomark...
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  • Why doctors are recommending CRP tests even for Covid patients?
    Why doctors are recommending CRP tests even for Covid patients? February 18, 2022
    WHAT IS CRP C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein made by the liver. CRP levels in the blood increase when there is a condition causing inflammation somewhere in the body. A CRP test measures the amount of CRP in the blood to detect inflammation due to acute conditions or to monitor the severity of disease in chronic conditions. (LABTESTONLINE, 2021) WHY CRP TEST After an injury, the start of an infection, or other cause of inflammation, CRP is released into the blood within several hours, making it a non-specific indicator of inflammation and one of the most sensitive acute phase reactants. You may need this test if you have symptoms of a serious bacterial infection. The level of CRP can surge as much as a thousand-fold in response to bacterial infection (LABTESTONLINE, 2021) Symptoms include: ²  Fever ²  Chills ²  Rapid breathing ²  Rapid heart rate ²  Nausea and vomiting A CRP test is simple and safe, and you don’t need any special preparations. A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. The process usually takes less than 5 minutes and all you feel is a little sting. (MedlinePlus, 2020) HOW OFTEN SHOULD CRP BE CHECKED Checking the CRP level for the entire adult population is not recommended. Some experts recommend checking the serum CRP level routinely along with the cholesterol level; however, although this is not widely accepted. (MedicineNet, 2021) Ideally, for cardiac risk testing, it is advisable to use the average between two separate CRP levels drawn two weeks part. Because measuring CRP levels at any point in time may be influenced by any infection or inflammation in the body, onetime measurement is generally not regarded as an adequate predictor of cardiovascular risk. (MedicineNet, 2021) CRP MEETS COVID-19 The outbreak of COVID-19 is an emerging global health threat. Clinical studies demonstrated that elevated level of C‐reactive protein may be an early marker to predict risk for severity of COVID‐19. It has been found CRP level changes significantly in patients with severe COVID-19 conditions. (MedlinePlus, 2020) With reference to the outcome made by some recent studies, serum concentration of CRP in patients with COVID‐19 are presented in Table 1. (MedlinePlus, 2020) WHY CRP TEST SHOULD BE RECOMMENDED TO THE COVID PATIENTS? Doctors are conducting it mandatorily for the patients with critical conditions who are in hospital care, because it is one of the indicators showing the body’s reaction to the ongoing treatment. In Covid treatment, if the CRP is the normal level then the patient’s body is reacting to the treatment positively and if it is higher than the required, then doctors would check the infection level in the body through other tests like CT scan. CRP test is not costly like CT scan and the CRP level in the patients on the basis of which doctors can decide the next course of action. Doctors recommend it for at least twice on an interval of 4-...
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  • Can Dietary factors protect against liver cancer development?
    Can Dietary factors protect against liver cancer development? January 27, 2022
    Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common (>80%) histological type of liver cancer. There are large variations in geographical distribution of liver cancer worldwide. The disease burden is the highest in areas with endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, such as in Asian countries, specifically in the East and South-East Asia, while North and South America have a relatively low incidence. About 72% of all liver cancer occurs in Asia, with China accounting for 47% of the global burden. Established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV), excessive alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure. Carbohydrates Over the past decades, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption has increased dramatically worldwide. Although still inconclusive, this rising trend in sugar consumption, practically simple sugar (mainly fructose consumption), has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and T2D, and NAFLD. As mentioned above, insulin resistance, obesity and NAFLD may lead to the establishment of HCC. Thus, SSB consumption, mainly fructose, could be thereby linked to HCC development. Dietary fats/fatty acids To date, the association between dietary fat intake and risk of HCC has not been well studied, and the existing epidemiologic evidence is limited and inconclusive. Dietary proteins/amino acids The three BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine and valine, are among the nine essential amino acids for humans. They have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro.   Dietary trace elements and vitamins In the 2 cohorts of Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study with 132,765 Chinese adults and over 500 liver cancer cases, it suggested that dietary manganese intake was inversely associated with liver cancer risk Dairy products Previous studies suggested that high dairy product intake may increase the levels of plasma IGF-1. The increased concentration of IGF-1, an important factor in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis, might contribute to the development of several cancers including HCC in experimental studies. Fruit, vegetable Consistently, total fiber, vegetable fiber, especially cereal fiber, were possibly associated with lower HCC risk, while fiber from fruit did not seem to be associated with HCC risk. Meats In the Japanese Ministry of Education (JACC) cohort, showing no significant association between beef or pork intake and HCC mortality without adjustment for any risk factors. Intake of red meat particularly processed red meat may increase, while white meat possibly fish may decrease the risk of HCC Coffee and alcohol The evidenc...
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  • Can vitamin D ward off respiratory tract infections?
    Can vitamin D ward off respiratory tract infections? January 11, 2022
    Vitamin D For Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections (COVID-19) What is Vitamin D? Vitamin D is a fat-soluble-vitamin, unlike most other vitamins which are generally obtained through dietary sources, in that a major source derives from UV light-induced conversion of its precursor under the skin which means Vitamin D can be produced by the body itself through exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D is not naturally present in most foods. Dietary sources include fortified foods and supplements. Fatty fish and fish liver oils are among the few quality sources of vitamin D, and smaller amounts are found in beef liver and some mushrooms. (WHO, n.d.) (Lukaszuk and Luebbers, 2017) Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide. (WHO, n.d.) Why is Vitamin D Important? Vitamin D deficiency may affect the immune system as vitamin D plays an immunomodulation role, enhancing innate immunity by up-regulating the expression and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, which boosts mucosal defences. Furthermore, recent meta-analyses have reported a protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory tract infections. (WHO, n.d.) Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with rickets, a disease in which the bone tissue doesn't properly mineralize, leading to soft bones and skeletal deformities. But increasingly, research is revealing the importance of vitamin D in protecting against a host of health problems including: l  Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease l  Cognitive impairment in older adults l  Severe asthma in children l  Cancer (Davis, 2009) Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Respiratory tract infections are conditions that affect the air passages. These include acute infections that affect the lower respiratory tract and lungs, such as pneumonia and influenza, which are among the leading causes of death in children worldwide. (WHO, n.d.) In 2015, 16% of all deaths in children under five years of age were attributed to pneumonia. Pneumonia is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can also be caused by a virus, such as coronavirus (COVID-19). These conditions may also have an impact on quality of life. Therefore, it is important to find interventions that could prevent respiratory conditions. (WHO, n.d.) A constant effort has been put into addressing those diseases caused by Vitamin D deficiency. And so far to our knowledge, observational studies report consistent independent associations between low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infection. In a recent-year research conducted by a whole lot of health professionals to find out the role of Vitamin D in preventing respiratory infections, they came to a conclusion: “Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants. And protective effects were seen in those receiv...
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