immunofluorescence reagents
  • [Biotime announcement] - Biotime infection marker interleukin 6 (IL-6) is officially launched!
    [Biotime announcement] - Biotime infection marker interleukin 6 (IL-6) is officially launched! April 22, 2021
    Interleukin is a type of cytokine produced by and acting on a variety of cells. Interleukin 6 (Interleukin 6, abbreviated IL-6) is an important member of the cytokine network, and it has been widely used in many clinical fields. PCT has been widely recognized clinically in differential diagnosis of bacterial infection, risk stratification of sepsis and guidance of antibiotic use. IL-6 is an important cytokine expressed in the initial response of the innate immune system to injury and infection, and plays an important role in the early diagnosis of acute infection. IL-6 combined with PCT has complementary advantages, improves detection sensitivity and specificity, and better facilitates the management of the whole course of sepsis. IL-6 is also one of the important monitoring indicators during the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. IL-6 is used for early warning of sepsis After the occurrence of inflammation, IL-6 is the first inflammatory marker. IL-6 will be involved in the occurrence and development of many diseases, and its blood level is closely related to inflammation, viral infection and autoimmune diseases, and its changes are earlier than CRP and PCT. Studies have shown that IL-6 increases rapidly after bacterial infection, PCT increases after 2h, and CRP increases rapidly after 6h [1]. So IL-6 can be used for early warning of sepsis. (Kinetic changes of inflammatory markers in vivo after endotoxin stimulation) IL-6 is used to evaluate the prognosis of sepsis Studies have shown that the high IL-6 concentration during the treatment of sepsis indicates the poor prognosis of patients and the higher mortality rate at the later stage of treatment. The expert consensus on the interpretation of the clinical significance of infection-related biomarkers mentioned that IL-6> at 1000 pg/mL suggests a poor prognosis. Therefore, the detection of IL-6 is also of great significance for the prognosis assessment of sepsis. Application of IL-6 in COVID-19 IL-6 is an important pathway that induces cytokine storm. Cytokine storm is a kind of transitional immune response, and the uncontrolled release of inflammatory factors eventually leads to organ damage and even functional failure. From a large number of research data, it is generally believed that cytokine storm is a key factor in the deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, IL-6 is also an important monitoring indicator in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, which can be used for early warning of severe/critical COVID-19 and can also help guide the clinical selection of appropriate treatment strategies. a) Key laboratory indicators for COVID-19 patient assessment b) IL-6 levels in 99 confirmed COVID-19 patients Figure (a) In a retrospective multicentric study of 150 confirmed COVID-19 cases, IL-6 in the deceased patients was significantly higher than that in other cases [2]. Figure (b) In a study of 99 patients published in the January 29 Lancet, IL-6 was significantly elevated in more th...
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  • Biotime attended medical trade fair CACLP 2021
    Biotime attended medical trade fair CACLP 2021 March 31, 2021
    Established in 1991, CACLP Expo now is the largest, the most influential and professional trade show in China In Vitro Diagnostics (IVD) and clinical laboratory industry. Biotime, a leading manufacturer of POCT, attended China Association of Clinical Laboratory Practice (CACLP) Expo 2021 from March 28th to 30th at Chongqing International Expo Center. During this CACLP, Biotime exhibited a full line of Point of Care Testing (POCT) reagents and released 3 automated analyzers, named HLC-100 Fully Automated HbA1c Analyzer, FLI-600 FIA Analyzer and FLI-4000 Fully Automated FIA Analyzer. At the same time, Biotime brought a wonderful academic satellite symposium. Cardiology expert Wang Bin was invited to introduce the chest pain center and related cardiac markers. Biotime’s new innovations attracted lots of medical experts and distributors' attention to stop by and communicate with each other. We are so grateful for visitors' support and wish to meet you next year!
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  • Why doctors are recommending CRP tests even for Covid patients?
    Why doctors are recommending CRP tests even for Covid patients? February 18, 2022
    WHAT IS CRP C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein made by the liver. CRP levels in the blood increase when there is a condition causing inflammation somewhere in the body. A CRP test measures the amount of CRP in the blood to detect inflammation due to acute conditions or to monitor the severity of disease in chronic conditions. (LABTESTONLINE, 2021) WHY CRP TEST After an injury, the start of an infection, or other cause of inflammation, CRP is released into the blood within several hours, making it a non-specific indicator of inflammation and one of the most sensitive acute phase reactants. You may need this test if you have symptoms of a serious bacterial infection. The level of CRP can surge as much as a thousand-fold in response to bacterial infection (LABTESTONLINE, 2021) Symptoms include: ²  Fever ²  Chills ²  Rapid breathing ²  Rapid heart rate ²  Nausea and vomiting A CRP test is simple and safe, and you don’t need any special preparations. A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. The process usually takes less than 5 minutes and all you feel is a little sting. (MedlinePlus, 2020) HOW OFTEN SHOULD CRP BE CHECKED Checking the CRP level for the entire adult population is not recommended. Some experts recommend checking the serum CRP level routinely along with the cholesterol level; however, although this is not widely accepted. (MedicineNet, 2021) Ideally, for cardiac risk testing, it is advisable to use the average between two separate CRP levels drawn two weeks part. Because measuring CRP levels at any point in time may be influenced by any infection or inflammation in the body, onetime measurement is generally not regarded as an adequate predictor of cardiovascular risk. (MedicineNet, 2021) CRP MEETS COVID-19 The outbreak of COVID-19 is an emerging global health threat. Clinical studies demonstrated that elevated level of C‐reactive protein may be an early marker to predict risk for severity of COVID‐19. It has been found CRP level changes significantly in patients with severe COVID-19 conditions. (MedlinePlus, 2020) With reference to the outcome made by some recent studies, serum concentration of CRP in patients with COVID‐19 are presented in Table 1. (MedlinePlus, 2020) WHY CRP TEST SHOULD BE RECOMMENDED TO THE COVID PATIENTS? Doctors are conducting it mandatorily for the patients with critical conditions who are in hospital care, because it is one of the indicators showing the body’s reaction to the ongoing treatment. In Covid treatment, if the CRP is the normal level then the patient’s body is reacting to the treatment positively and if it is higher than the required, then doctors would check the infection level in the body through other tests like CT scan. CRP test is not costly like CT scan and the CRP level in the patients on the basis of which doctors can decide the next course of action. Doctors recommend it for at least twice on an interval of 4-...
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  • Immunofluorescence Platform
    Immunofluorescence Platform March 29, 2021
    Immunochromatography is also called immunoaffinity chromatography. The specific processes are as follows: a specific antibody containing the marker is dropped on the bonding pad, and a specific antibody is added at a location of the nitrocellulose membrane. After the sample liquid of the sample to be tested is added to the sample pad, through the action of the capillary tube, the sample solution and the marker are uniformly diffused at the binding pad through the action of the capillary tube. The sample solution reacts with the europium chelate to form the complex of the europium antibody chelate. The complex containing the europium antibody chelate then flows forward. When the complex moves to the detection band, because the detection band contains a specific antibody, it has a specific immune reaction with the europium antibody chelate-containing antigen and finally forms the immune complex of antigen-antibody-europium antibody complex. At the same time, the labeled antibody was also captured on the test line and stayed in the test line, while the redundant markers continued to flow forward and were adsorbed to the control band by the protein antibody on the membrane, and the complex specific binding occurred on the control line, and at the same time, the labeled antibody was also captured on the control line. According to the difference of marker types, the signal is detected by the instrument.
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  • Can Dietary factors protect against liver cancer development?
    Can Dietary factors protect against liver cancer development? January 27, 2022
    Primary liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common (>80%) histological type of liver cancer. There are large variations in geographical distribution of liver cancer worldwide. The disease burden is the highest in areas with endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, such as in Asian countries, specifically in the East and South-East Asia, while North and South America have a relatively low incidence. About 72% of all liver cancer occurs in Asia, with China accounting for 47% of the global burden. Established risk factors of liver cancer include chronic infection with HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV), excessive alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure. Carbohydrates Over the past decades, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption has increased dramatically worldwide. Although still inconclusive, this rising trend in sugar consumption, practically simple sugar (mainly fructose consumption), has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and T2D, and NAFLD. As mentioned above, insulin resistance, obesity and NAFLD may lead to the establishment of HCC. Thus, SSB consumption, mainly fructose, could be thereby linked to HCC development. Dietary fats/fatty acids To date, the association between dietary fat intake and risk of HCC has not been well studied, and the existing epidemiologic evidence is limited and inconclusive. Dietary proteins/amino acids The three BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine and valine, are among the nine essential amino acids for humans. They have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro.   Dietary trace elements and vitamins In the 2 cohorts of Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study with 132,765 Chinese adults and over 500 liver cancer cases, it suggested that dietary manganese intake was inversely associated with liver cancer risk Dairy products Previous studies suggested that high dairy product intake may increase the levels of plasma IGF-1. The increased concentration of IGF-1, an important factor in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis, might contribute to the development of several cancers including HCC in experimental studies. Fruit, vegetable Consistently, total fiber, vegetable fiber, especially cereal fiber, were possibly associated with lower HCC risk, while fiber from fruit did not seem to be associated with HCC risk. Meats In the Japanese Ministry of Education (JACC) cohort, showing no significant association between beef or pork intake and HCC mortality without adjustment for any risk factors. Intake of red meat particularly processed red meat may increase, while white meat possibly fish may decrease the risk of HCC Coffee and alcohol The evidenc...
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  • HPLC
    HPLC March 29, 2021
    HbA1c can be measured by different methods. But high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods are considered as a gold standard method for measuring HbA1c in human blood. A chemical (electrical) charge is present on the molecule of HbA1c, and the amount of the charge differs from the charges on the different components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c has a difference in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by HPLC. HPLC separates mixtures into their various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules.
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  • Can vitamin D ward off respiratory tract infections?
    Can vitamin D ward off respiratory tract infections? January 11, 2022
    Vitamin D For Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections (COVID-19) What is Vitamin D? Vitamin D is a fat-soluble-vitamin, unlike most other vitamins which are generally obtained through dietary sources, in that a major source derives from UV light-induced conversion of its precursor under the skin which means Vitamin D can be produced by the body itself through exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D is not naturally present in most foods. Dietary sources include fortified foods and supplements. Fatty fish and fish liver oils are among the few quality sources of vitamin D, and smaller amounts are found in beef liver and some mushrooms. (WHO, n.d.) (Lukaszuk and Luebbers, 2017) Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide. (WHO, n.d.) Why is Vitamin D Important? Vitamin D deficiency may affect the immune system as vitamin D plays an immunomodulation role, enhancing innate immunity by up-regulating the expression and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, which boosts mucosal defences. Furthermore, recent meta-analyses have reported a protective effect of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory tract infections. (WHO, n.d.) Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with rickets, a disease in which the bone tissue doesn't properly mineralize, leading to soft bones and skeletal deformities. But increasingly, research is revealing the importance of vitamin D in protecting against a host of health problems including: l  Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease l  Cognitive impairment in older adults l  Severe asthma in children l  Cancer (Davis, 2009) Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Respiratory tract infections are conditions that affect the air passages. These include acute infections that affect the lower respiratory tract and lungs, such as pneumonia and influenza, which are among the leading causes of death in children worldwide. (WHO, n.d.) In 2015, 16% of all deaths in children under five years of age were attributed to pneumonia. Pneumonia is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can also be caused by a virus, such as coronavirus (COVID-19). These conditions may also have an impact on quality of life. Therefore, it is important to find interventions that could prevent respiratory conditions. (WHO, n.d.) A constant effort has been put into addressing those diseases caused by Vitamin D deficiency. And so far to our knowledge, observational studies report consistent independent associations between low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infection. In a recent-year research conducted by a whole lot of health professionals to find out the role of Vitamin D in preventing respiratory infections, they came to a conclusion: “Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants. And protective effects were seen in those receiv...
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  • Cardiac Blood Test - A Quick Walkthrough
    Cardiac Blood Test - A Quick Walkthrough October 21, 2021
    Your blood offers many clues about your heart health. Aside from cholesterol level in your blood which can be a sign of whether you have a heart attack, other substances in your blood can also tell you about your heart health. It's important to remember that one blood test alone doesn't determine your risk of heart disease. It often takes several different blood tests for doctors to diagnose and manage heart disease. In this article, we will focus on some of them and take a quick look at why you may need this test. Cardiac biomarkers are substances that are released into the blood when the heart is damaged or stressed. Measurements of these biomarkers are used to help diagnose acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cardiac ischemia, conditions associated with insufficient blood flow to the heart. Tests for cardiac biomarkers can also be used to help determine a person’s risk of having these conditions or to help monitor and manage someone with suspected ACS and cardiac ischemia. Troponin Troponin is a protein released into your bloodstream when your heart muscle is being damaged. This protein is by far the most commonly used biomarker. It has the highest known sensitivity. An increased level of troponin protein in your blood has been linked with the amount of heart damage following a heart attack and a higher risk of heart disease in people who have no symptoms so it is often done if you have chest pain. (UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, 2021) Myoglobin Myoglobin is a small protein that stores oxygen. It is measured occasionally. Myoglobin is sometimes measured in addition to troponin to help diagnose a heart attack. It is also not very specific for finding a heart attack. (UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, 2021) B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a protein that your heart and blood vessels make. BNP helps your body eliminate fluids, relaxes blood vessels and moves sodium into your urine. For people who have heart failure, establishing a baseline BNP can be helpful and future tests can be used to help measure how well treatment works. BNP has a variation called N-terminal BNP which is also useful for diagnosing heart failure and for assessing the risk of a heart attack and other problems in those with existing heart disease. (Mayo Clinic, 2021) CK-MB CK-MB is a subtype of CK. It is more sensitive for finding heart damage from a heart attack. CK-MB rises 4 to 6 hours after a heart attack. But it is generally back to normal in a day or two. Because of this, it's not helpful when a healthcare provider is trying to figure out if your recent chest pain was a heart attack. (UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, 2021) D-Dimer D-Dimer is one of the protein fragments produced when a blood clot gets dissolved in the body. It is normally undetectable or detectable at a very low level unless the body is forming and breaking down blood clots. Then, its level in the blood can significantly rise. The strength of the D...
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