immunofluorescence reagents
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  • Immunoassay Analyzers And Assays
    Immunoassay Analyzers And Assays August 11, 2021
    INTRODUCTION Immunoassay analysers are applied to a situation where one wants to detect or isolate a molecule within a mixture, usually using an antibody as a reagent. (Beckmancoulter, 2021) These devices perform a variety of tests including those targeting cancer, allergies, therapeutic drug monitoring and more. And they typically include an autosampler, a reagent dispenser, a washer, and a detection system. (, 2021) Modern immunoassay analysers often come with advanced, user-friendly features such as touchscreen interface, easy-to-use software and ready-to-use reagents. With advanced analysers, laboratories can benefit from simple and trouble-free operation, workflow flexibility, fast turnaround times, and broad measuring ranges. (Block Scientific Inc, 2021) TYPES AND VARIATIONS Five types of immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluoroimmunoassay (FIA), chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and counting immunoassay (CIA), are generally used. Depending on configuration and levels of sophistication, as well as available testing options, different immunoassay analysers could vary greatly. (Martínez, 2021) Radioimmunoassay The radioimmunoassay is perhaps the oldest types of immunoassays. Here, a radioisotope is attached to an antigen of interest and bound with its complementary antibody. Then a sample with the antigen to be measured is added. It competes with the radioactive antigen, kicks it out of the binding spot and replaces it. After washing away unbound antigens the radioactivity of the sample is measured. The amount of radioactive signal is inversely related to the amount of target antigen. The health hazards of using radioactive substances caused a movement toward safer methods. (Martínez, 2021) Counting immunoassay In a counting immunoassay, polystyrene beads are coated with many antibodies complementary to the target antigen. During incubation the beads bind to multiple antigens and group together into a large mass. Some beads remain unbound. The entire solution is passed through a cell counter and only the unbound beads are counted. The number of unbound beads is inversely proportional to the amount of antigen. (Martínez, 2021) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay The Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay, also known as ELISA, determines various entities such as the presence of antibodies to an infectious disease and also detects and measures antibodies in human samples as a reaction to specific antigens. ELISA-tests are commonly used to test the concentration of Vitamin D, insulin, COVID-19 or hepatitis antigens in samples. (Future Diagnostics, 2021) Fluorescence and Chemiluminescence Immunoassays Besides the use of immunoassays based on colour intensity to detect antibodies in specimens, detection can also be done by fluorescent tracers and light-generating molecules. These are called Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) and Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA). The basis of these immunoassays is a variant of ELISA. T...
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    WHAT IS IL-6 IL-6 is an immune protein promptly and transiently produced in response to tissue damage and infections. On the other hand, IL-6 is also a pyrogen and is responsible for fever in autoimmune, infectious, or non-infectious diseases. IL-6 is produced in the body, wherever there is inflammation, either acute or chronic. This includes situations such as trauma, burns, cancers, and infection. (Thomas, 2021)   RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IL-6 AND COVID-19 During the pandemic, scientists have explored the role of IL-6 as a predictor for patients with severe coronavirus disease.   Based on the finding that infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus induces a dose-dependent production of IL-6 from bronchial epithelial cells, a study involving nearly 11,000 patients discovered that treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients with drugs that block the effects of interleukin-6 reduces the risk of death and the need for mechanical ventilation. (Henderson, 2021)   According to the study, in hospitalized patients, administering the interleukin-6 antagonists (such as tocilizumab and sarilumab) in addition to corticosteroids reduces the risk of death by 17%, compared to the use of corticosteroids alone. In patients not on mechanical ventilation, the risk of mechanical ventilation or death is reduced by 21%, compared to the use of corticosteroids alone. (Henderson, 2021)   Some also conducted data analysis of COVID-19 cases at long-term care facilities in Slovakia Patients with hypoxemia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase at initial screening among which IL-6 was identified as the most robust predictor of hypoxemia. (Sabaka et al., 2021)   Given the current situation of global vaccine inequity, people in the lowest income countries will be the ones most at risk of severe and critical COVID-19. Therefore, further work is necessary to clarify the exact role of IL-6 during coronavirus infections and the potential role of this cytokine to be used as a biomarker of viral virulence. Additional work exploring the potential therapeutic use of blocking IL-6 or different products affected by its activity might provide insight into controlling persistent COVID-19 infections. (Velazquez-Salinas et al., 2019)   BIOTIME IL-6 Biotime IL-6 is an in vitro diagnostic test for the quantitative determination of IL 6 in human serum or plasma. As researchers have pointed out a portion of severely ill COVID-19 patients experience rapid deterioration and need for mechanical ventilation due to development of ARDS. Being an unconventional way to address the issue, Biotime IL-6 can also be used to assist in identifying severe inflammatory response in patients with confirmed COVID 19 illness who need mechanical ventilation in conjunction with clinical findings.     References Thomas, L. (2...
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  • What is an IgE test?
    What is an IgE test? July 12, 2021
    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is an antibody produced by the body's immune system in response to a perceived threat. It is one of the five types of immunoglobulins (A, G, M, D, and E) and is usually found in very small amounts in the blood. The total IgE test can be used to help screen and detect allergic diseases. It measures the total amount of immunoglobulin E in the blood. Immunoglobulin is a protein that plays a key role in the human immune system. They are produced by specific immune cells called plasma cells. Immunoglobulins are produced against bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms and substances that are recognized as "non-self" or provide harmful antigens to the immune system. Elevated concentrations of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be found in a variety of clinical diseases, including allergic diseases, certain primary immune deficiencies, infections, inflammatory diseases, and malignant tumors, and to a lesser extent, are related to the immunity of parasites is related. Occasionally, an IgE test may be needed to help diagnose a very rare genetic disease called high immunoglobulin E syndrome (Job syndrome). People with this disease usually have significantly higher IgE levels than normal, and may have eczema, recurrent sinus and lung infections, bone defects, and severe skin infections. A large increase in IgE concentration may indicate that a person has inherited this condition. When a person experiences periodic or persistent symptoms due to an allergic reaction, especially when the underlying allergen is unknown, a total IgE test may be required. Symptoms may include those that indicate involvement of the skin, respiratory system, and/or digestive system, such as: -Periodic or persistent itching -Urticaria -Itchy eyes -Eczema -Nausea, vomiting, persistent diarrhea -Sneezing, coughing, congestion -Difficulty breathing -Asthma symptoms: wheezing, difficulty breathing, coughing, chest tightness Biotime IgE rapid quantitative test kit is in great demand right now. It allows use of different sample material: whole blood, plasma, and serum with results conveniently available, making the process a lot less cumbersome and genuinely helping screen and detect a variety of clinical diseases. Reference 1. Homburger HA: Allergic diseases. In: Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. WB Saunders Company. 2007;961-971 2. Martins TB, Bandhauer ME, Bunker AM, Roberts WL, Hill HR: New childhood and adult reference intervals for total IgE. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb;133(2):589-591 3. Bernstein IL, Li JT, Bernstein DI, et al: Allergy diagnostic testing: An updated practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008 Mar;100(3 Suppl 3):S1-148 4. Ansotegui IJ, Melioli G, Canonica GW, et al: IgE allergy diagnostics and other relevant tests in allergy, a World Allergy Organization position paper. World Allergy Organ J. 2020 Feb;13(2):100080. doi: 10.1016/j.waojou.2019.100080
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    More than 18 month since the outbreak, COVID 19 is still raging in much of the world. The novel coronavirus has mutated into strains such as the Delta variant which was first detected in India and accounted for 99% of Covid-19 cases in the UK by mid-Jun, according to Public Health England. (The Guardian, 2021) Delta strain is a highly contagious and possibly more severe SARS-CoV-2 virus strain. Delta is spreading 50% faster than Alpha, which was 50% more contagious than the original strain of SARS-CoV-2—making the new variant 75% more contagious than the original. (YaleMedicine, 2021) And like we’re seeing now, Delta is outcompeting everything else and becoming the dominant strain. The symptoms of the Delta variant appear to differ from traditional COVID symptoms, According to data from the United Kingdom, the most common COVID symptoms may have changed from those we traditionally associated with the virus. Those include: Put aside fever and cough which have always been common COVID symptoms, and headache and sore throat which have traditionally presented for some people, a runny nose is now being reported significantly more frequently. Meanwhile, loss of smell, which was originally quite common, now ranks ninth. (Herrero, 2021) Although it's still not clear whether it it's more dangerous, scientists are becoming more confident the Delta variant represents a more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 strain. (Fox, 2021) What’s even more concerning, is that the Delta variant that has caused devastation in countries like India and the UK has now mutated to produce another variant called Delta Plus. (Joi, 2021) While vaccines are rolling out, not all of us are able to receive them as soon as we'd like. And because not all of us are yet fully protected, get tested if you have any symptoms, even if it’s “just a sniffle”, to protect yourself with some added peace of mind as well as others in your community. Through the course of the pandemic, Biotime’s consolidated its commitment to bringing accessible COVID-19 rapid self-testing to the masses. Hence a wide range of covid 19 test kits has been rolled out and made available both nationwide and worldwide. In particular, the BIOTIME SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Qualitative Test is a lateral flow immunoassay intended for qualitative detection and differentiation of IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum, plasma (potassium EDTA), and potassium EDTA venous whole blood. Our rapid antigen covid test kit is also qualified to detect both asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19, helping society collectively return to daily life. In addition to that, some scientific researches have purposefully assessed the use of D-dimer, PCT, CRP, IL-6, Ferritin as biomarkers for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. And the results are rather convincing to suggest they can provide important information on the prognosis of the novel corona virus infection. Below is Biotime’s product specification. Shop now on our websit...
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  • Product Recommendations | NGAL- Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury
    Product Recommendations | NGAL- Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury July 05, 2021
    What is NGAL? The full name of NGAL is human lipocalin 2 (Ln2) or siderocalin. It belongs to the lipocalin family and is the earliest proposed marker of acute kidney injury (AKI).   What is the clinical significance of NGAL? 1. NGAL is a marker of acute kidney injury (AKI) When AKI occurs, NGAL rises rapidly in a very short period of time, and the most obvious is 2h. Serum creatinine (sCr), urinary enzymes, etc. often increase significantly after 24 to 72 hours. At this time, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has decreased significantly, and NGAL can change before GFR decreases, so it is suitable for early diagnosis of AKI. At the same time, the increase in NGAL concentration is closely related to the duration of AKI, the severity of kidney injury (RIFLE classification), and the treatment effect and prognosis. 2、Can predict the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially diabetic nephropathy Studies have found that NGAL may be involved in the occurrence and development of diabetes as an inflammatory factor. In diabetic nephropathy, renal tubule damage may be earlier than glomerulus. As a marker of early renal tubular damage, NGAL can reflect renal function damage in diabetic patients (especially type 2 diabetes) before urinary microalbumin (mALB). 3、NGAL also has a certain relationship with tumors Data from different laboratories indicate that the concentration level of NGAL is related to a variety of tumors. It promotes cell proliferation by uptake of iron ions and helps tumor cell growth and infiltration. It is related to tumor cachexia and has become an independent predictor of poor prognosis for patients with cachexia. Compared with traditional projects, what are the advantages of NGAL? When AKI occurs, NGAL rises rapidly in a very short time. The following figure shows the time of increase in the concentration of various markers after the occurrence of AKI: Therefore, testing NGAL can buy more time for AKI patients and grasp the best time for treatment. What are the clinical applications of NGAL? Due to the excellent predictive and diagnostic value of NGAL in AKI, the detection of NGAL can be increased in clinical situations that easily cause AKI. · Routine monitoring after major surgery · Monitoring of ICU patients · Triage of conditions in the emergency department · Early diagnosis of AKI caused by infection and sepsis · Contrast nephropathy (CIN) monitoring after interventional therapy...... NGAL is also an evaluation index of chronic kidney disease, so it can also be used to predict the progression of chronic kidney disease and early detection of kidney damage in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin assay kit provided by Biotime uses fluorescence immunochromatography, which is easy to operate and results in 10 minutes. Product Name:NGAL Rapid Quantitative Test Link:
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  • Qualitative VS Quantitative Test, which one is better?
    Qualitative VS Quantitative Test, which one is better? June 28, 2021
    Qualitative VS Quantitative Test , which one is better ? Here’s a quick rundown on what is the difference between the two types of diagnostic test and when would be most appropriate to use them respectively: Qualitative Test Qualitative test relies on the collection of non-numerical insights such as opinions. Like a non-quantitative hCG pregnancy test can check whether the hCG hormone is present in the blood thus to suggest whether a woman is pregnant while it is not 100% accurate since it does not measure the exact amount of hCG in the blood . From what's been observed during COVID 19, antibody or Antigen test kits are the most convenient and cost-effective test kits that is adaptable to a wide range of uses. Quantitative test Quantitative test is designed to gather data points in measurable, numerical form. With this kind of test method, an hCG pregnancy test checks human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the blood or urine. This measurement means that an HCG test can test whether a woman is pregnant by telling you the amount of hCG present in the blood or urine. Back to the HCG test kit, β-HCG level during a woman’s pregnancy under different conditions can range from 5 to 200,000 mIU/ml. Below is the specification of Biotime’s β-Hcg product. At the early stage of the prevention and control of COVID 19, the National Health Commission issued the "COVID-19 Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol (Trial Version 7)" on March 3, 2020 which suggested adding the Serological test in the clinical performance.  IgG antibody titer in recovery period was 4 times higher than in acute period. Nevertheless, quantitative test is often regarded as a more superier test approach. But still, qualitative test shines in its own way. It is a simple, less fussy, more straight forward choice for someone who is only looking to get a “yes or no” answer from the test results. In a word, no matter which one you prefer, we at Biotime are able to provide you with both choices and deliver answers in more settings, for more conditions.
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  • What kinds of POCT HbA1c devices have been available in the market?
    What kinds of POCT HbA1c devices have been available in the market? June 21, 2021
    Diabetes mellitus(DM)is a chronic disease caused by deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia, deranged metabolism and sequelae predominantly affecting the vasculature. The most common types include type 1 and type 2 DM. DM represents a major health problem of the 21st century, causing severe long-term damage to the cardiovascular and nervous system as well as eyes and kidneys. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 1.6 million deaths each year to be directly caused by diabetes [1]. Most cases (90%) of DM are type 2, which arises from defects in insulin action leading to insulin resistance, often combined with defects in insulin secretion. Circulatory insulin levels therefore may be normal or raised, but it cannot be used effectively. This subtype is predominant in middle-aged overweight patients with a sedentary lifestyle. In 2011 the WHO advocated the use of HbA1c for the diagnosis of type 2 DM and in 2012 UK guidance followed suit [2, 3]. The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming “glycated”. HbA1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. Most POCT devices for HbA1c use a drop of capillary or venous whole blood. Following application to the test cartridge, the sample is analysed within a few minutes using methods based on either differences in structure or charge of the glycated vs non-glycated haemoglobin. Ion-exchange chromatography: Haemoglobin species (HbA1c and HbA0) are separated based on the difference in isoelectric point, by employing differences in ionic interactions between the haemoglobin in the blood sample and the cation exchange groups on the column resin surface. HPLC is based on ion-exchange chromatography technology, which is a gold standard in detecting HbA1c. Immunoassay: The immunoassay method uses antibodies which bind to the N-terminal glycated tetrapeptide or hexapeptide group of the HbA1c, forming immunocomplexes which can be detected and measured using a turbidimeter or a nephelometer. Affinity chromatography: Affinity chromatography is a separation technique based on structural differences between glycated vs non-glycated haemoglobin which utilises m-aminophenylboronic acid and its specific interactions with the glucose adduct of glycated haemoglobin. Enzymatic assay: Enzymatic quantification of HbA1c is based on cleavage of the beta chain of haemoglobin by specific proteases to liberate peptides, which then further react to produce a measurable signal (4). HbA1c in diagnosis HbA1c can indicate people with prediabetes or diabetes as follows: How often do we need to take a HbA1c test? Everyone with diabetes mellitus should be offered a HbA1c test at least once a year. Some people may have an HbA1c test more often. T...
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